Unlimited Plugins, WordPress themes, videos & courses! Unlimited asset downloads! From $16.50/m Advertisement # Create a Template with Joomla: Step by Step Difficulty:BeginnerLength:LongLanguages: This tutorial will walk you through the necessary steps of creating a Joomla template from scratch. We'll cover every last detail; so let's get started! This tutorial is an excerpt from the recently released "Joomla! 1.6: A User's Guide," courtesy of Pearson. ## The Game Plan • What is a Joomla template? What functions does a Joomla template perform, and what is the difference between a template that has no content and a template whose content is added to the CMS? • How does the localhost design process differ from that of a static HTML web design process? • What are the implications of tableless design in Joomla, and what is the relationship between W3C standards, usability, and accessibility? • What ﬁles make up a Joomla template, and what functions do they perform? • How do you create a source-ordered three-column layout by using CSS rather than tables? • What are the basic CSS styles that should be used with Joomla, and what are the default styles that the Joomla core uses? • How do you place and style modules, and what are some new techniques for rounded corners? • What would be a simple strategy for producing lean CSS menus that mimic the effects of menus developed with JavaScript? • How do you control when columns are shown and hide them when no content is present? • What are the proper steps in creating a Joomla 1.6 template? ## What Is a Joomla! Template? A Joomla template is a series of ﬁles within the Joomla CMS that control the presentation of content A Joomla template is a series of ﬁles within the Joomla CMS that control the presentation of content. A Joomla template is not a website; it's also not considered a complete website design. A template is the basic foundational design for viewing a Joomla website. To produce the effect of a "complete" website, the template works hand-in-hand with content stored in Joomla databases. The template is styled so that when your content is inserted, it automatically inherits the styles from stylesheets deﬁned in the template, such as link styles, menus, navigation, text size, and colors, to name a few. Using a template for a CMS, as Joomla does, has a number of advantages: • Joomla does all the work of placing content within pages. You can add new information to existing blog pages simply by typing a new article. The template and its CSS make sure it appears stylistically consistent with other content on the site. • There is a complete separation of content and presentation, especially when CSS is used for layout (as opposed to having tables in the index.php file). This is one of the main criteria for determining whether a site meets modern web standards. In a standards-compliant site, the HTML tags for tables are reserved for presenting tabular data and not laying out a page into columns. • You can apply a new template, and hence a completely new look to a website, instantly. This can involve different locations for positioning content and modules, as well as colors and graphics. ## The Localhost Design Process The web page you see at a Joomla-powered website is not static; it is generated dynamically from content stored in the database. When content in the database is changed, all pages that display that content are instantly changed. The page you see is created through various PHP commands in the template that query the database. Because the template looks like lines of code instead of content, it presents some difﬁculties in the design phase. There is no "right way" to create a web page. It's common now to use a "what you see is what you get" (WYSIWYG) HTML editor, such as Dreamweaver, so you don't need to code the HTML. However, using such an editor is not possible in the Joomla template design process because WYSIWYG editors cannot display and edit dynamic pages. Therefore, you must code a template and its CSS manually and view the output page from the PHP on a served page that you frequently refresh as you make changes. With a fast enough connection, this could be a web server, but most designers use a local server, or localhost, on their own computer—a piece of software that serves the web pages on your computer, such as the localhost setups described in Chapter 2, "Downloading and Installing Joomla!" There is no "right way" to create a web page; how you do it depends on your background. Those who are more graphics inclined tend to make an "image" of a page in a graphics program such as Photoshop and then break up the images so that they can be used for the Web (known as slicing and dicing). More technology-based designers often jump straight into the CSS and start coding fonts, borders, and backgrounds. However, as just mentioned, as a Joomla template designer, you're limited by the fact that you cannot instantly see the effect of your coding in the same editor. You can therefore use the following modiﬁed design process: 1. Have a localhost server loaded with content running in the background to "run" Joomla. 2. Make your edits to the HTML and CSS with an editor and then save your changes to the server. 3. View the pages affected by your edits in a web browser. ### Localhost Server Options To move further along in this tutorial, you need to have WampServer installed. If you haven't done so yet, go ahead and install it. I'll wait right here. On a hosted web server, you can edit the HTML template and CSS ﬁles in the backend while having the frontend open in another tab of your browser. As you save your changes, you can simply refresh the frontend view to see the impact. With a localhost setup, you have the added convenience of direct access to the ﬁles to edit them with the editor of your choice. As you save your changes, without having to close the editor, you can refresh the frontend view in your browser and see the impact. ### W3C and Tableless Design Usability, accessibility, and search engine optimization (SEO) are all phrases used to describe high-quality web pages on the Internet today. In reality, there is a signiﬁcant amount of overlap between usability, accessibility, and SEO, and a web page that demonstrates the characteristics of one typically does so for all three . The easiest way to achieve these three goals is to use the framework laid out in the W3C web standards. For example, someone who has poor vision can easily read a site that is structured semantically with HTML through a screen reader. It can also be easily read by a search engine spider. Google is effectively blind in how it reads a website; it's as though it is using a screen reader. Web standards put into place a common set of "rules" for all web browsers to use to display a web page. The main organization pushing these standards is the W3C, whose director, Tim Berners-Lee, is credited with inventing the Web in 1989. To understand where web standards came from, some history is helpful. Many web pages are actually designed for older browsers. Why? Browsers have continually evolved since the World Wide Web was born. Each generation introduced new features, and the manufacturers came up with different, sometimes proprietary, tags (names) for those features. Each browser tends to have a different syntax, or "dialect," and quirks for implementing the same base HTML language. New browsers have appeared, and some old ones have disappeared (remember Netscape?). Current W3C standards serve to (hopefully) push manufacturers to release more compliant browsers that read the same language and display pages more consistently so that designers can design to a single common platform. Another complicating factor is that historically, different browser makers (such as Microsoft) tend to have their browsers interpret HTML in slightly different ways. Consequently, web designers must design their websites to support older browsers rather than new ones. Designers and website owners often decide that it's important that a web page appear properly in these "legacy" browsers. The W3C standards outlined for web page code were developed to achieve consistency. A site that incorporates the W3C's web standards has a good foundation for making itself accessible, usable, and optimized for search engines. Think of these as building codes for your house: A website built with them is stronger and safer and coincides with users' expectations. You can check your pages with the W3C's HTML validation service (validator.w3.org). It's easy and free (just make sure you use the correct DOCTYPE when you try to validate your code. At its simplest, a site that meets W3C validation is likely to also use semantic HTML and separate its content from presentation by using CSS. Ask ﬁve designers what web standards are, and you will get ﬁve different answers. But most agree that web standards are based on using valid code, whether HTML (or others), in the manner speciﬁed in the latest version of the standards. ### Semantically Correct Code Semantically correct means that the HTML tags in a web page describe only content, not presentation As mentioned earlier, being semantically correct means that the HTML tags in a web page describe only content, not presentation. In particular, this means structured organization of H1 tags, H2 tags, and so on and using tables only for tabular data, not for layout. One area where Joomla template designers compromise slightly on being purely semantically correct is the convention of naming the left and right columns of a two- or three-column layout as, well, left and right instead of the more semantically correct sidebar or side column. If these are only position names used in the template's PHP, they are technically correct. If they are also used to deﬁne matching classes in the HTML and CSS, it's a forgivable convenience to have everything associated with displaying the page's left column named or classed as left. In the examples that follow, you will see that the position of left is styled with the class sidebar and right is sidebar-2, which is semantically correct code. ### Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Closely related to making code semantically correct is using CSS to control the look and layout of a web page. CSS is a simple mechanism for adding style (for example, fonts, colors, spacing) to web documents. CSS exist parallel to the HTML code and let you completely separate content (code) from presentation (CSS). To see this in action, check out CSS Zen Garden, a site where the same HTML content is displayed in different and unique ways, just by changing the CSS ﬁle. The resulting pages look very different but have exactly the same core content. Designing Joomla-powered sites currently presents considerable challenges in terms of meeting validation standards. Designing Joomla-powered sites currently presents considerable challenges in terms of meeting validation standards. In the ﬁrst series of Joomla releases, 1.0.X, the code used a signiﬁcant number of tables to output its pages. This isn't really using CSS for presentation, nor does it produce semantically correct code. This problem is compounded by the fact that many third-party developers of components and modules are still using tables to generate their layouts. Fortunately, the Joomla core development team recognized this issue with Joomla. In Joomla 1.5, it's possible for template designers to completely override the output of the core (called a view) and strip out the tables or customize the layout—in whatever way they want. Care can still be taken when creating a template to make sure it is accessible (for example, scalable font sizes), usable (clear navigation), and optimized for search engines (source ordered). ## Creating a Simple Template: Step 1 To understand the contents of a template, let's start by looking at a blank Joomla template. ### Template File Components This section reviews the manual process of setting up template ﬁles. Normally, you would install the template using the Joomla installer, which takes care of all these steps. When constructing your own templates, you need to set up several ﬁles and folders in a coordinated manner. A template needs to contain various ﬁles and folders. These ﬁles must be placed in the /templates/ directory of a Joomla installation, each in a folder designated for that template. If you had two templates installed called Element and Voodoo, your directory would look something like this: Note that the directory name for a template must be the same as the name of the template—in this case, element and voodoo. These names are case-sensitive and shouldn't contain spaces. Within the directory of a template, there are two key ﬁles: These ﬁlenames and locations must match exactly because this is how they are called by the Joomla core script.The ﬁrst of these is the template XML ﬁle. This is an XML-format metadata ﬁle that tells Joomla what other ﬁles are needed when it loads a web page that uses this template. (Note the uppercase D.) It also details the author, copyright, and what ﬁles make up the template (including any images used). The last use of this ﬁle is for unpacking and installing a template when using the extension installer in the administrative backend. The second key ﬁle is the primary template ﬁle that generates pages, the index.php. This ﬁle is the most important in a Joomla template. It lays out the site and tells the Joomla CMS where to put the different components and modules. It is a combination of PHP and HTML. Almost all templates use additional ﬁles. It is conventional (although not required by the Joomla core) to name and locate them as shown here for a template called Element. These are just examples. Some of the commonly found files in a template are shown below /element/template_thumbnail.png -- A web browser screenshot of the template (usually reduced to around 140 pixels wide by 90 pixels high). After the template has been installed, this functions as a preview image that is visible in the Joomla administration Template Manager. /element/params.ini --A text file that would store the values of any parameters the template has. /element/css/template.css -- The CSS of the template. The folder location is optional, but you have to specify where it is in the index.php file. You can call it what you want. Usually, the name shown is used, but you will see later that there are advantages to having other CSS files, too. /element/images/logo.png-- Any images that go with the template. Again for organization reasons, most designers put them in an images folder. Here we have an image file called logo.png as an example. ### templateDetails.xml The templateDetails.xml ﬁle acts as a manifest, or packing list, that includes a list of all the ﬁles or folders that are part of the template. It also includes information such as the author and copyright. Some of these details are shown in the administrative backend in the Template Manager. An example of an XML ﬁle is shown here: Let's look at what some of these lines mean: • <install version="1.6" type="template">—The contents of the XML document are instructions for the backend installer. The option type="template" tells the installer that you are installing a template and that it is for Joomla 1.6. • <name>960TemplateTutorialStep1 </name>—This line defines the name of your template. The name you enter here will also be used to create the directory within the templates directory. Therefore, it should not contain any characters that the file system cannot handle, such as spaces. If you're installing manually, you need to create a directory whose name is identical to the template name. • <creationDate>—This is the date the template was created. It is a free-form field and can be anything such as May 2005, 08-June-1978, 01/01/2004, and so on. • <author>—This is the name of the author of this template—most likely your name. • <copyright>—Any copyright information goes in this element. • <authorEmail>—This is the email address at which the author of this template can be reached. • <authorUrl>—This is the URL of the author's website. • <version>—This is the version of the template. • <files></files>—This is a list of various files used in the template. The files used in the template are laid out with <filename> and <folder> tags, like this: The "files" sections contain all generic files, such as the PHP source for the template or the thumbnail image for the template preview. Each file listed in this section is enclosed by <filename> </filename>tags. You can also include whole folders, such as an image folder, by using the <folder> tag. • <positions>—This shows the module positions available in the template. It is the list of page locations, such as top, left, and right, defined in the template in which modules can be set to appear, using the Position drop-down of the Module Manager. The position names in this list must precisely match the PHP code that generates content for each listed position inside index.php. • <config>—This section describes the parameters that can be set in the backend and passed as global variables to allow advanced template functions, such as changing the color scheme of the template. ### index.php What is actually in an index.php ﬁle? It is a combination of HTML and PHP that determines everything about the layout and presentation of the pages. Let's look at a critical part of achieving valid templates: the DOCTYPE at the top of the index.php ﬁle. This is the bit of code that goes at the top of every web page. At the top of our page, put this in the template: The ﬁrst PHP statement simply shows the copyright/license and makes sure the ﬁle is not accessed directly for security. A web page DOCTYPE is one of the fundamental components of how a web page is shown by a browser—how various HTML tags are handled and, more importantly, how the browser interprets CSS. The following observation from A List Apart should clarify things: You can use several DOCTYPEs. Basically, the DOCTYPE tells the browser what version of HTML was used to design the page, whether it has some legacy code or also contains XML, and therefore how to interpret the page. Here the words strict and transitional start getting ﬂoated around (float:left and float:right usually) to indicate whether legacy code was included. Essentially, ever since the Web started, different browsers have had different levels of support for various HTML tags and versions of CSS. For example, Internet Explorer 6 or less won't understand the min-width command to set a minimum page width. To duplicate an effect so that it displays the same in all browsers, you sometimes have to use browser-speciﬁc "hacks" in the CSS that make up for shortcomings in each browser's adherence to the published standards. Strict means the HTML will be interpreted exactly as dictated by standards. A transitional DOCTYPE means that the page will be allowed a few agreed upon differences from the standards (for example, continued use of discontinued tags). To complicate things, there is something called "quirks" mode. If the DOCTYPE is wrong, outdated, or not there, the browser goes into quirks mode. This is an attempt to be backward compatible, so Internet Explorer 6, for example, will render the page as if it were Internet Explorer 4. Unfortunately, people sometimes end up in quirks mode accidentally. It usually happens in two ways: • They use the DOCTYPE declaration straight from the WC3 web page, and the link ends up as DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd, which is a relative link on the WC3 server. You need the full path, as shown earlier. • Microsoft set up Internet Explorer 6 so you could have valid pages but be in quirks mode. This happens when you have an xml declaration put before instead of after the DOCTYPE. Next is an XML statement (after the DOCTYPE): The information I just gave you about Internet Explorer 6 quirks mode is important. In this tutorial, you're designing only for Internet Explorer 6 and later, and you need to make sure that it's running in standards mode to minimize the hacks you have to do later on. Let's look at the structure of the index.php ﬁle header; you want it to be as minimal as possible but still have enough for a production site. The header information you will use is as follows: What does all this mean? We already discussed the implications of the DOCTYPE statement in the index.php ﬁle. The <?php echo$this->language; ?< code pulls the language from the site's language setting in Global Conﬁguration.

$app = Jfactory::getApplication(); is a variable that allows you to grab various parameters, like the name of the site and use them in the template.The next line is for including more header information: <jdoc:include type="head" /> This code snippet inserts in the generated page (that is, your frontend) all the header information that is set in the Global Conﬁguration. In a default installation, it includes the tags shown here: Much of this header information is created on-the–ﬂy, speciﬁc to the page (article) that someone is viewing. It includes a number of metatags, and any RSS-feed URLs. The last lines in the header provide links to CSS ﬁles for Joomla-generated pages in general and also in this template: The ﬁrst two ﬁles, system.css and general.css, contain some generic Joomla styles. The last one is all the CSS for the template, here called template.css. The PHP code <?php echo$this->template ?> returns the name of the current template. Writing it in this way rather than writing the actual path makes the code more generic. When you create a new template, you can just copy this line (along with the whole header code) and not worry about editing anything.

The template CSS can include any number of ﬁles, such as conditional ones for different browsers and for different media, such as print. For example, the following code detects and adds an additional CSS ﬁle that targets the quirks of Internet Explorer 6 (we'll leave it out of our working example here):

The next example is part of a technique for using a template parameter. In this case, a color scheme selected as a parameter in the Template Manager is loading a CSS ﬁle that has the same name as the selected color:

It might generate this:

## The Joomla! Page Body

Still in the index.php ﬁle, now that the <head> part of the page is set up, we can move on to the body tag. Creating your ﬁrst template will be easy! Ready?

To create the template, all you need to do is use Joomla statements that insert the contents of the main body, plus any modules you want:

The template contains the following, in reasonably logical viewer order:

• The name of the site
• The top modules
• The left modules
• The right modules
• The footer modules
• A debug module

At this point (if you preview it, make sure it's the default template), the site does not look very awe inspiring.

You want to come as close to semantic markup as possible. From a web point of view, this means a page can be read by anyone—a browser, a spider, or a screen reader. Semantic layout is the cornerstone of accessibility.

Notice that you use the ﬁrst of a number of commands speciﬁc to Joomla to create this output:

The PHP echo statement simply outputs a string from the configuration.php ﬁle. Here, you use the site name; you could as easily use the following:

The jdoc statement inserts various types of HTML output, from either modules or components.

This line inserts the output from a component. What component it is will be determined by the linked menu item: <jdoc:include type="component" />

This line inserts the output for a module location: <jdoc:include type="modules" name="right" />

This line generates content for all modules that have their position set to right. The content generated for those modules is placed in the page in the order set in the Order column of the Module Manager. This is the full syntax:

## Using CSS to Create a Tableless Layout: CSS Template Tutorial - Step 2

In this section, you will use pure CSS to make a three-column layout for the Joomla template. You will also be making it a "ﬁxed" layout. There are three main types of web page layouts—ﬁxed, ﬂuid, and jello — and they all refer to how the width of the page is controlled.

• A ﬁxed layout has the width set to some ﬁxed value.
• A ﬂuid layout can grow and shrink to the browser window.
• A jello layout is ﬂuid but between some minimum and maximum values.

A few years ago, ﬂuid width templates were all the rage. Accessibility guys loved them, and it was cool to grab the corner of your browser window and see all that content slide around.

But now, I don't make ﬂuid templates, but focus on ﬁxed width templates. I ﬁrmly believe they are the best ﬁt on today's Web. Four years ago, many people were still using 800px width screens. The main point of a ﬂuid width was that you could have a web page that looked okay in a 1024px screen, but still could shrink down to the smaller screens still used.

Now, the trend in screens is the opposite. People are getting huge screens; 32% of people browsing Joomlashack.com are doing so with resolutions over 1024px.

With these big screens and a 960px width layout, you get a new problem—readability. Studies have shown that readability onscreen drops off as you go over 960px. So a ﬂuid width will ﬁll that big screen and a) look daft and b) slow down your reading.

A typical design might use tables to lay out the page. Tables are useful as a quick solution in that you just have to set the width of the columns as percentages. However, tables also have several drawbacks. For example, tables have a lot of extra code com-pared to CSS layouts. This leads to longer load times (which surfers don't like) and poorer performance in search engines. The code can roughly double in size, not just with markup but also with "spacer GIFs," which are 1x1 transparent images placed in each cell of the table to keep the cells from collapsing. Even big companies sometimes fall into the table trap.

### Issues with Table-Based Layouts

• They are difficult to maintain. To change something, you have to figure out what all the table tags, such as tr and td, are doing. With CSS, there are just a few lines to inspect.
• The content cannot be source ordered. Many web surfers do not see web pages on a browser. Those viewing with a text browser or screen reader read the page from the top-left corner to the bottom right. This means that they first view everything in the header and left column (for a three-column layout) before they get to the middle column, where the important stuff is located. A CSS layout, on the other hand, allows for "source-ordered" content, which means the content can be rearranged in the code/source. Perhaps your most important site visitor is Google, and it uses a screen reader for all intents and purposes.

When it comes to CSS layouts, there has been a trend toward what have been coined frameworks. The idea is that a consistent set of CSS is used to create the layout, and then that set is maintained for various issues like browser compatibility. For this template we are going to adopt the 960 grid system developed by Nathan Smith. It's still not very exciting, but let's look at what the different parts are all about.

With the 960 grid system, you merely have to specify with a class how big you want the grid to be. In this example, I am using a 12-column grid, so for the header to run across the full width of 960px, in the index.php use:

For our three columns, we add grids inside a container like this:

Notice that there is already some breathing room to the content with a 10px column spacing,commonly called gutter. This is all automatically done by the clever 960 CSS grid framework, and all browser issues (yes, we mean you, Internet Explorer) are dealt with.

The main code for index.php is as follows:

In this example, I renamed the CSS ﬁle to layout.css. With the 960 grid framework, we will rarely need to touch this ﬁle and can compress it as much as possible. The critical parts of the layout.css ﬁle look like this:

Quite simply, everything is ﬂoated left, and the various grid sizes are set based on their desired width. It's a 12-column grid, so, for example grid_6 means six columns, which would be 460px—the full width minus the padding. This simple layout is a good one to use for learning about how to use CSS with Joomla because it shows two of the advantages of CSS over table-based layouts: It is less code, and it is easier to maintain.

Source-ordered layouts perform better for SEO.

However, this simple layout is ordered in the code in the sequence in which you see content on the screen. It is not "source ordered" to place the most important content at the beginning of the generated HTML source yet still have the same viewer-ordered appearance onscreen, with the left column displayed before (that is, to the left of ) the center column.

Source-ordered layouts perform better for SEO than do layouts where the important content occurs late in the code. From a Joomla site perspective, the important content is that which comes from the main body component. For now, to keep the CSS simple, we'll stick with this viewer-ordered layout, and we'll change to source-ordered layout later in the article. Many commercial templates, for example, Joomlashack's, develop this source-ordered concept further.

### Default CSS

So far, all the CSS has been only about layout, which makes a plain page. So let's add some formatting, placing the CSS in a new ﬁle called typography.css. Remember to add it to the index.php ﬁle!

As you begin working on typography with CSS, you should set some overall styles and include a simple global reset:

The purpose of a global reset is to override the default settings that are different in every browser and get to a clean, consistent starting point, regardless of which browser the page is being displayed on.

Everything is given a zero margin and padding, and then all block-level elements are given a bottom and a bottom margin. This helps achieve browser consistency. (The ﬁrst CSS selector above is called the star selector, and it acts as a universal selector even in Internet Explorer 6.) You can read more about the global reset here and here.

You set the font size to 76% to try to get more consistent font sizes across browsers. All font sizes are then set in ems. Setting line-height:1.3 helps readability. When you set fonts and line heights in ems, the pages are more accessible because the viewers will be able to resize the fonts to their own preferences, and the pages will reﬂow and remain readable. This is discussed further here.

If you were to add some background colors to the header, sidebars, and content containers, you would see something like what is shown below.

Notice that the side columns do not reach the footer. This is because they extend only as far as their content; where the space is white on the left and on the right, the side columns don't exist.

If you have a template that has a white background for all three columns, this is no problem. You will use this approach and will have boxes around the modules. If you want equal-height columns that are colored or have boxes, you have to use some technique to give the columns an equal height. One common solution is to use a JavaScript script to calculate and set the heights on the ﬂy.

### Modules in Templates

When a module is called in the index.php ﬁle, there are several options for how it is displayed. The syntax is as follows:

The style, which is optional, is deﬁned in templates/system/html/modules.php. Currently, the default modules.php ﬁle contains the following layout options: table, horz, xhtml, rounded, and none. Let's take a brief glimpse at the lines of code needed for each of these options:

OPTION="table" (default display) modules are displayed in a column. The following shows the output from Joomla if we use the "table" option. Note the PHP statements would be replaced by actual content:

OPTION="horz" makes the modules appear horizontally. Each module is output in the cell of a wrapper table. The following shows the output from Joomla if we use the "horz" option:

OPTION="xhtml" makes modules appear as simple div elements, with the title in an H3
tag. The following shows the output from Joomla if we use the "xhtml" option:

OPTION="rounded" makes modules appear in a format that allows, for example,stretchable rounded corners. If \$style is used, the name of the div changes from moduletable to module. The following shows the output from Joomla if we use the "rounded" option:

OPTION="none" makes modules appear as raw output containing no element and no title.

As you can see, the CSS options (xhtml and rounded) are much leaner in code, which makes it easier to style the web pages. I don't recommend using the options (sufﬁxes) table (default) or horz unless absolutely needed.

If you examine the modules.php ﬁle shown earlier, you will see all these options that exist for modules. It's easy to add your own; this is part of the new templating power of Joomla 1.6.

To develop a template, you can put the module style xhtml on all your modules in index.php:

Let's remove the background from the layout divs and add some CSS to style the modules with a border and a background for the module titles.

We add the following to the typography. Your CSS ﬁle should now look like this:

Here you have added speciﬁc style rules for the modules generated with style="xhtml"and therefore generated each with a <div> of class .moduletable and having the module's heading displayed in an <h3> tag within that <div>.

The typography CSS you've created now produces the result shown below.

Again, using CSS lists rather than tables results in reduced code and easier markup. One of the other advantages of using CSS for menus is that there is a lot of sample code on various CSS developer sites. Let's look at one of them and see how it can be used.

A web page at maxdesign.com has a selection of more than thirty menus, all using the same underlying code. It's called the Listamatic. There is a slight difference in the code that you have to change to adapt these menus to Joomla.

These list-based menus use the following general code structure:

This means that there is an enclosing <div> called navcontainer, and the <ul> has an id of navlist. To duplicate this effect in Joomla, you need to have some sort of enclosing <div>. You can achieve this by using module sufﬁxes. Recall that the output of a module with style="xhtml" is as follows:

If you add a module sufﬁx called menu, it will get added to the moduletable class, like this:

So when choosing a menu from the Listamatic, you would need to replace the navcontainer class style in the CSS with moduletablemenu.

This use of a module class sufﬁx is useful. It allows different-colored boxes with just a simple change of the module class sufﬁx.

For your site, say that you want to use List 10 by Mark Newhouse (see here). Your CSS looks like this:

You need to add the module sufﬁx menu (no underscore in this case) to any modules for menus you want styled using this set of CSS rules. This produces a menu like what's shown below

### Hiding Columns

So far, you have a layout such that you always have three columns, regardless of whether there is any content positioned in those columns. From the perspective of a CMS template, this is not very useful. In a static site, the content would never change, but you want to give your site administrators the ability to put content in any column, without having to worry about editing CSS layouts. You want to be able to turn off a column automatically or collapse it if there is no content to display there.

Joomla 1.6 provides an easy way to count the number of modules generating content for a particular position so that you can add some PHP testing of these counts and hide any empty columns or similar unused div containers and adjust the layout accordingly. This PHP if test syntax for modules is as follows:

There are four possible conditions. For example, let's count the number of modules in Figure 9.7. You could insert this code somewhere in index.php:

So if we inserted this code into our template, we might get the following results with the sample Joomla content:

• countModules('left')—This returns 3 because there are three modules on the left.
• countModules('left and right')—This returns 1 because there is a module in the left and right positions. Both tests are true (>0).
• countModules('left or right')—This returns 1 because there is a module in the left or right position. Both tests are true (>0).
• countModules('left + right')—This returns 4 because it adds together the modules in the left and right positions.

In this situation, you need to use the function that allows you to count the modules present in a speciﬁc location (for example, the right column). If there is no content published in the right column, you can adjust the column sizes to ﬁll that space.

There are several ways to do this. You could put the conditional statement in the body to not show the content and then have a different style for the content, based on what columns are there. We are going to take advantage of the grid system and simply pass the sizes of the grid based on some calculations.

In the header, let's deﬁne a couple of variables to make sure they have some default value.

In the HTML of the template, we can then use these variables to set the grid class:

You'll notice we are echoing out the colgrid values and then doing a simple calculation to ﬁnd the main column, as we know they must total 12.

We then can use the countModules function to ﬁnd some value. In our head we insert:

Note that we are checking to see whether the left and right positions have zero modules as we have already set the default grid size to 3. We could have also have done this check with a true/false check rather than a numerical value (zero).

You are halfway there, but now you have expanded the width of the center column to accommodate any empty (soon to be hidden) side columns.

### Hiding Module Code

When creating collapsible columns, it is good practice to set up the modules not to be generated if there is no content there. If you don't do this, the pages will have empty divs in them, which can lead to cross-browser issues.

To not generate an empty div, you use the following if statement:

When you use this code, if there is nothing published in position left, then <div id="sidebar">; also, everything within it will not be included in the generated page.

Using these techniques for the left and right columns, your index.php ﬁle now looks as follows:

The basic template created in this section shows some of the fundamental principles of creating a Joomla template.

Now that you have the basics done, you can create a slightly more attractive template, using the techniques you have learned.

## Making a Real Joomla! 1.6 Template: 960 Template Tutorial - Step 3

You need to start with a comp. A comp, short for composition, is a drawing or mockup of a proposed design that will be the basis of the template.

In this section, we'll use a design by Dan Cedarholm from his book Bulletproof Web Design. I heartily recommend this book, as it's provides an outstanding foundation in some CSS techniques that are useful in creating Joomla templates.

We'll use some of these techniques to build this real-word template.

### Slicing and Dicing

The next step in the process is slicing. You need to use your graphics program to create small sliced images that can be used in the template. It's important to pay attention to how the elements can resize if needed. (My graphics application of choice is Fire-works because I ﬁnd it better suited to web design—as opposed to print design—than Photoshop.)

This process could probably ﬁll a whole book by itself. To get a sense of how to slice up a design, you can look at the images folder and see the slices.

The header image has a faint gradient at the top. We put the image in as an untiled background and then assign a matching ﬁll color behind it. That way, the header can scale vertically if you need it to (for example, if the fonts are resized). You also need to change the color of any type to white so that it shows up on the black background.

You did not use a graphical logo here; you use plain text. The reason is mainly because search engines cannot read images. You could do some nifty image replacement, but I will leave that as an exercise for you to do on your own.

### The Banner/Message Module

We use our "top" module location from the last template for a message. To give it some styling, we can add

The header now looks as shown below:

Next, you need to implement a technique to show a background on the side columns.

### Column Backgrounds

Recall that when you put a color background on the columns, the color did not extend all the way to the footer. This is because the div element—in this case, sidebar and sidebar-2—is only as tall as the content. It does not grow to ﬁll the containing element. This is a weakness of grid-based systems; we would have to use some JavaScript to get a background on the side columns.

There are many scripts out there that calculate the height of columns and make them equal. We'll use one from Dynamic Drive: http://www.dynamicdrive.com/csslayouts/equalcolumns.js.

Note that we must change the columns/elements referred to in the script to match ours. We are also going to add another containing block element, "maincolbck" to hold the yellow faded background for the top of the content in the main column.

Let's also put a background onto the footer element while we are adding these. Our added CSS is:

This now gives us a gradient background for the right column:

### Flexible Modules

When designing modules, you need to consider whether they will stretch vertically (if more content is in them), horizontally, or both. Here we use the principles of bulletproof design contained in Dan's book. We use a couple of simple background images to create a module background that stretches in both axes. We place one background on the containing div, and the other one for the opposite corner on the h3 header.

As this design does not have a horizontal menu, we also take care of menu styling as we consider the side modules.

Our CSS looks like this:

Now let's focus on some of the typography.

### Typography

The CSS for typography is greatly simpliﬁed in Joomla 1.6. Earlier versions of Joomla had unique classes for various parts of the output, such as "contentheading". In Joomla 1.6, the output uses more recognized classes like H1, H2, and so on, and is completely tableless.

Let's style these elements:

We can also add some handy icon treatment for special classes that can be applied to content:

The ﬁnished template should look as shown below

## Summary

This excerpt worked through four examples of templates, each time increasing the complexity and features. Here are the key points we reviewed:

• Modern websites separate content from presentation by using a technology known as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). In Joomla, a template and its CSS files control the presentation of the content.
• When creating a template, it helps to have Joomla "running" on a localhost server so you can make changes at the file level with your favorite editor and refresh the page output in a browser to see the impact.
• Creating valid templates should be a path, not a goal. The idea is to make a template as accessible as possible, for humans and spiders, not to achieve a badge for valid markup.
• The most basic template simply loads the Joomla modules and mainbody component, preferably in source order. Layout and design are part of the CSS, not part of the template.
• Modern web design uses CSS rather than tables to position elements. It's difficult to learn but worth the investment. There are many (non-Joomla) resources available to help.
• Joomla consistently outputs specific elements, IDs, and classes in the code of a web page. These can be predicted and used to style the design using CSS.
• The output of modules can be completely customized, or you can use the prebuilt output options, such as xhtml. All these options are called module chrome.
• It's best to always use the fully expanded list options for menu output. You can then use many free resources on the Web for the CSS that will style and animate your menu.
• Elements such as columns or module locations can be hidden (or collapsed) when there is no content in them. This is done using conditional PHP statements that control whether any code associated with unused modules and their container is included in the generated page; it is also done to link to different CSS styles to adjust the layout accordingly.
• Creating a production Joomla template is more a question of graphical design and CSS manipulation than some special Joomla knowledge.